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Using White Sage in your Chinese Medical Practice
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Using White Sage in Your Chinese Medical Practice

by Amy Hazard, L.Ac.

"Matter is the most spiritual in the perfume of the plant."
-Rudolph Steiner

Introduction
Sage or Salvia meaning “to save” may be the most healing herb known to mankind.  Salvia apiana, commonly known as white sage, is no exception.  The Chumash Native Americans used this plant to treat sprains and sore muscles, cure colds and congestion, stop sweating, and for ceremonial purposes.  The precious essential oil from the leaves and flowers is stimulating and cleansing to the skin, soothing to sore muscles, and restorative to skin and hair.  The oil is also a stimulant for the nervous system, metabolism, and vital centers, containing antiseptic, antiviral, and antibacterial properties.

White sage is a powerful addition to any herbalist’s pharmacopoeia and there is no need to find any other reason for its use than its own merit.  That being said, with the increasing public demand for Chinese herbs and the impact that has on a global level there is also an undeniable environmental reason for using local, sustainable herbs in their stead.  There is also the belief that the most potent and appropriate remedy for inhabitants of any given region is arguably that region’s local native plants.  For example, similar to how an unhealthy deer eats a certain native plant to rid itself of disease, humans have traditionally used herbal medicine endemic to where they live.  Some herbalists claim that local medicinal plants are better suited to treat the local human population. According to Professor J. R. Worsley, “Anything that can be done with needles can also be done with herbs, but if you use herbs, for God’s sake use local ones, because they are not ten times stronger, they are not a hundred times stronger, they are one thousand times stronger than any plants that grow someplace else (Cowen 64).”  Worsley's wise words sing true when using white sage for medicinal purposes.

In this course, you will learn:
◊ What conditions Native Americans used white sage for
◊ What the actions and indications are for using white sage using the Chinese materia medica framework
◊ How to use white sage in conjunction with Chinese herbs or in lieu of Chinese herbs
◊ How to identify white sage for wildcrafting and harvest
◊ How to collect, dry, and process white sage for decoction or single herb tea
Alternate uses of white sage as an essential oil on acupuncture points and hydrosol for internal use

Let's begin!


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Ethnobotany

The ethnobotany, or the study of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people concerning plants and how they used them medically or otherwise, is a good jump off point to talk about the extensive history of safe clinical use of white sage.

The Cahuilla Native Americans used the leaves of white sage as a cold remedy. The leaves were eaten, smoked and used in the sweathouse for colds (Bean 136). They used crushed leaves as a hair shampoo, dye and straightener and placed them in the armpits as a deodorant while sleeping (Bean 136). White sage seeds were used as eye cleansers;  a few seeds placed under the eyelid at night would form a gelatinous layer to which any foreign particles in the eye adheres and then be washed out of the eye by the eyes own tears (Bean 136).

The Diegueno Native Americans took white sage leaf decoction for colds and for a serious case of poison oak that "has entered the blood" (Hedges 39). 
The Diegueno also made an infusion of leaves for cough and as a tonic for the blood (Hinton 219).  Leaves were burned in hot coals to fumigate or “smudge” the house after a case of sickness such as measles.  An infusion of the roots was taken to heal internally and remove particles of afterbirth (Romero 14).


The Kumeyaay Native Americans rubbed white sage leaves on sore neck muscles and on poison oak rash (Chaddock).  They made a leaf tea for respiratory illnesses and asthma.

The Chumash call White Sage (Salvia apiana) "khapshikh" (Timbrook 184). They took it to stop menorrhagia most likely as a tea (Adams 127).

Today, white sage is used as a purifying incense in which the end of a dried bundle known as a "smudge stick" is lit and quickly blown out so the leaves continue to smolder.  The aromatic smoke is allowed to waft over the body or area (some people use it to "clear" rooms in their homes) as it is thought to cleanse and harmonize the body and spirit (Timbrook, 186).

Smudgine




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Research

Although the modern scientific research on Salvia apiana is limited, there are several other sage's that are compositionally similarly that have been studied and shown to have some profound healing effects.  For example, Salvia lavandulaefolia, which has a very similar composition to Salvia apiana, has been shown to be effective for CNS disorders due to a component of the essential oil it contains called anticholinesterase.  Anticholinesterase has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, oestrogenic and CNS depressant effects, which are all relevant to the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil results in improvements in memory and attention in patients with AD and improves memory in healthy individuals as well (Perry et al. 656). 

For the treatment of women’s hormonal issues, it would be pertinent to analyze and research Salvia apiana's root constitutents, given that the
Cahuilla Native Americans used a root decoction to expel the afterbirth and promote healing, which suggests a possible hormone regulating and/or uterine stimulating effect.  This action is similar to the root constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Dan Shen), suggesting the potential substitution of Salvia apiana root for Salvia miltiorrhiza might be an effective substitute.  Further research is needed to study Salvia apiana's root in order to make this conclusion.   

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White Sage from a Chinese Medical Lens

Although not in any Chinese materia medica, white sage has been translated into the language of traditional Chinese medicine in order for the practitioner to see the herb through the lens of TCM.

BOTANICAL NAME:  Salvia apiana

COMMON NAME:  White Sage

FAMILY:  Lamiaceae (Mint) Family

PHARMACEUTICAL NAME:  Herba seu Flos Salvia Apiana

PLANT CHARACTERISTICS: Plant - Sweet, slightly pungent, aromatic, cool. Essential Oil Characteristics - Middle and top note, green, sweet, slightly pungent, camphoraceous, very cool.  Hydrosol Characteristics - Same as the oil.


CHANNEL TROPISM: Liver, Spleen, Heart, Uterus, and Lungs


PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS: Antiseptic, antibacterial, astringent, antihistamine, euphoric, sedative, and estrogenic.

ACTIONS & INDICATIONS:
1.  Astringes Fluids:  Stops abnormal sweating (spontaneous sweating of hands and armpits and night sweats).

2.  Stops Cough, Benefits the Throat, and Releases the Exterior: For cough, sore throat with fever. 

3.  Tonifies the Lung Qi, Circulates Lung Qi, Opens the Chest, Relieves wheezing, and Resolves Phlegm: For asthma and respiratory illness such as COPD (See Appendix C.)

4.  Regulates Menstruation, Nourishes the Blood and Alleviates Menopausal Symptoms: For irregular menstruation and hormonal deficiency symptoms associated with menopause especially hot flashes, night sweats, insomnia, and irritability.


5.  Clears Fire Toxin from the Blood and Nourishes Blood: For toxins including poison oak resins that have entered the blood.

6.  Inhibits Lactation: Stops the flow of breast milk.

7.  Topical for Heat Toxins: Topical gargle for inflamed sore throat, mouth sores, and gums.


CAUTIONS & CONTRAINDICATIONS: Avoid during pregnancy and breast feeding
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How to use White Sage with and in place of Chinese herbs

Using the actions from the previous page, the following is a comprehensive list of when it is appropriate to substitute or add white sage to a Chinese herbal formula.

1.  For abnormal sweating, white sage leaf can be used in place of or combined with Wu Wei Zi (Fructus Schisandrae), Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Lactiflorae), Long Gu (Os Draconis), and Mu Li (Concha Ostreae).  This herb seems to be particularly useful for night sweats due to hormonal deficiency accompanied by insomnia (Action #1).

2.  For sore throat and fever, white sage can be substituted for Niu Bang Zi (Fructus Arctii Lappae), Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae), Sang Ye (Folium Mori Albae), and also Wu Wei Zi (Fructus Schisandrae) (Action #2). 

3.  For wheezing, it can be used in place of Shan Yao
(Radix Dioscoreae Oppositae) and if there is copious sputum with cough, white sage can be used in place of Bai Guo (Semen Ginko Biloba) (Action #3). 

4.  White sage can be used to regulate the menses and nourish the blood in place of Bai Shao (Radix Paeoniae Lactiflorae) for menstrual dysfunction and menopausal disorder (Action #4). 

5.  For dark red and itchy, painful rashes it can be used in place of Zi Cao (Radix Arnebiae seu Lithosperma), especially if there is coinciding blood deficiency (Action #5). 

6.  For
mouth sores, sore throat and gums from heat toxins especially in cases of heat due to Yin deficiency or excess above/deficiency below, it can be used in place of Sheng Ma (Rhizoma Cimicifugae).  White Sage does not raise the Yang (Action #7), making it a very suitable herb for addressing heat in the upper jiao.
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White Sage - A Clinical Perspective

From a clinical perspective, both the hydrosol and essential oil have been effective in the Instructor's clinic at soothing sore throats, relieving night sweats, and clearing up headaches.  Due to white sage's effect on releasing fire toxins, patients have also reported a reduction in blemished skin. 
White sage essential oil and hydrosol have been shown to have the added benefit to be uplifting to the spirits and purifying for the mind, suggesting a Shen-uplifting component. 

The whole leaf tea has been effective in treating perimenopausal night sweating and insomnia in a single dose. 

Patients have reported the leaf tea to have a soothing effect on the bronchi and throat and an opening action on the airways similar to eucalyptus essential oil.

The leaf powder can be mixed with baking soda to create an effective homemade toothpaste as well  (please see page 19).
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Plant Identification

Salvia apiana is a strongly aromatic, silvery gray-green shrub growing between 3 to 6 feet high. It is so light in color it almost looks white with a velvety soft texture.  In the heat of midday sun the essential oils glisten in tiny gold droplets - a perfect embodiment of its purifying nature. 

White sage can be found in Coastal hills (but not on the coast itself), Chaparral, and Oak Woodlands. It ranges from California to Baja California, Mexico, grows at elevations less than 5,000 feet and blooms from April to June.  It prefers well draining poor rocky, clay or sandy soil.




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Plant Identification Continued

White sage leaves are opposite and oblong and mostly basal with finely scalloped margins measuring between 3 and 9 cm long.

Leaf

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Plant Identification Continued

The leaves are mostly arranged in one group at the end of a long stem and in a whorl similar to a rose flower.

 

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Plant Identification Continued

White sage is easily identified when in bloom as there is no other native flower like it! The flowers can grow large ranging from 2 to 6 feet long. The flower stalks are tall, white and lavender and are not arranged in whorls (like most other sages) but in loose flowers arranged in racemes that can extend prolifically and gracefully above the foliage.
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Plant Identification Continued

The flower stalks are very long but each individual flower is tiny ranging from .25 to 1 cm. The flowers have a ruffled long lower lip (lobe) and a shorter upper lip (lobe).

 

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Plant Identification Continued

There is a short greenish calyx, a 15 mm long exerted stigma with a tiny tinge of light blue at the tip, and two 15mm long stamens with golden anthers.
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Plant Identification Continued

Salvia
apiana is pollinated by bees, particularily bumblebees, and is significantly adapted for pollination.  The flower has a lower lip that is a landing platform and ledge for the bee (below).

Landing platform for bee
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Plant Identification

As the bee lands it grasps the two stamens in order to pull itself in for the nectar and in doing so leaves previously collected pollen in the stigma while collecting more pollen from the anthers. The word "apiana" in Salvia apiana meaning “bee” is well suited for this plant’s name.

Bee


A note from Amy:  Not sure if you have identified the correct species?  Email me with a photo and I will be happy to help.



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Wildcrafting and Harvesting

The general rule of thumb in sustainable wildcrafting is if a plant is rare in an area do not pick it!  Even if the plant is prolific elsewhere, if it is a small population in any one given area do not disturb it.  For example, if there are less than 10 plants visible in the area, look for another area to harvest, as this plant population is too small.  Another general rule is to harvest less than 10% of the plants in any area, especially if gathering roots. 

However, white sage can safely be harvested if the plant is cut at least a foot above ground. It will keep growing and flowering after being pruned. White sage is often the subject of mastication and brush clearing by Santa Barbara County road workers and where its cut, it grows back the healthiest!  This being said, white sage should be carefully picked so as not to over-harvest any one area. Often if it is government land a permit must be required to harvest.  It is illegal to harvest in National Parks.  Always use good judgment and gather with integrity while honoring nature’s gifts.



White sage is harvested a few inches below the base of the leaf cluster, and bound by the stems with a rubber band, twine, or sinew, and hung upside down to dry.  The bundles should be no larger then an inch at the tied end.  Do not dry in the sunlight but in a shaded area that is well circulated.  Dry until the entire bundle is brittle dry. An alternate quicker method is to layer the leaves one leaf thick in a food dehydrator for a day or two until brittle.

Drying sage

If you are in an area where you can't wildcraft and harvest your own white sage and would like to white sage dried leaf, please visit the Instructor's website here.



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Storing

To store white sage remove all leaves and place them in an airtight glass, metal or enamel container.

Canning jars are ideal for storing white sage leaf.  Do not use plastic when storing aromatic herbs as there are essential oils that will react with the plastic chemicals.  This holds true for aromatic Chinese herbs as well.  Label the jars with the herb’s name, location picked, and date picked.  

Store white sage leaf in a cool, dark area.  If using white wage essential oil or hydrosol label the bottle with the date distilled or purchased and avoid using if older than two years (after two years some believe the constituents start to degrade).  Essential oils and hydrosols should never be stored in plastic but in amber, green, or cobalt blue glass and kept out of the light and heat.
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Methods of Delivery

White Sage can be used as a whole leaf herb tea, a powder, an essential oil, or a hydrosol.  There are unique benefits to each delivery method.

Let's start with the leaf tea, which is the easiest to create.  Leaf tea can decrease secretions in general, specifically sweating, salivation, and mucus production of the sinuses, nose, throat, and lungs (Action #1). The steeping of sage leaf tea is important for this action as the longer preparation time pushes out the astringent tannins. 

To make an infusion, put 6-12 g of dried leaves in boiled water and cover with a lid. A simpler method is to fill a cup with fresh leaves and poor in boiled water to the top.  Let steep for 10 minutes or longer. A cup of leaf tea, about 6-12 grams, 3 times a day is possibly the most effective treatment for inhibiting lactation in weaning of humans or even animals (Moore 142).

Leaf tea is effective when taken before bed to stop night sweating.  White Sage tea also can help with spontaneous sweating and strong body odor. 

The tea is drunk cold as a stomach tonic and is beneficial for stomach ulcers and inflammation.  Use lukewarm tea as a gargle for sore throat, toothache, or gum inflammation (Moore 144).

The whole leaf contains diterpenes that are strongly antibacterial against Staph and Klebsielea pneumonia and antifungal against Candida which indicates that for these disorders the leaf tea is more beneficial than a hydrosol or essential oil * (See Appendix A).


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Methods of Delivery Continued

An alternative to whole leaf tea is making a powder from the leaves in a morter and pestle or coffee grinder (see photo on left).  The powder (shown below) can be added directly to hot water.  If you own a granule pharmacy, powdered sage would blend the easiest into your Chinese herbal formulas.  The powder is also easier to travel with, as it takes up less space. 



ground sage 

 

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Leaf Powder Uses Continued

The leaf powder can also be mixed with equal part baking soda for a healthy toothpaste that will also treat inflamed gums and mouth sores. 

The photo to the left is the unmixed toothpaste, the photo below is the mixed toothpaste.

Mixed Toothpaste
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White Sage Essential Oil and White Sage Hydrosol

Many of the actions for the essential oil and hydrosol are similar to the medicinal properties of the whole plant. The essential oil is usually stronger in action than the herb because it is concentrated. However, it doesn’t necessarily perform the same actions in the body because it is missing various plant components. Some of these other plant components can be found in the hydrosol. 

A hydrosol is a condensate water solution co-produced during steam distillation containing micro droplets of essential oil and hydrophilic plant components. Concerning hydrosols Suzanne Catty says, “Hydrosols contain all of the plant in every drop, just like a hologram. Here we have the water-soluble components, the essential-oil molecules, the very fluid that was flowing through the plant cells when the plant was collected. It’s all there in a matrix of water that is so much more than water, one of the most recognized holographic substances in healing.”

There will be some differences between the whole plant and its distilled essential oil and hydrosol that can only be discerned at this time through clinical use. The information presented will most likely change and be added to in the future as this newborn modality grows and emerges into the world of TCM.

If you are in an area where you can't wildcraft and harvest your own white sage and would like to order white sage essential oil or white sage hydrosol, please visit the Instructor's website here
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Essential Oil/Hydrosol Treatment Protocols

Topical treatment:
To use neat (direct application without dilution) on the skin place a small drop on the arm first to test for allergy.  If there is a reaction of burning, redness, or rash add 15 drops of essential oil to 1 oz of vegetable oil (such as apricot kernel, grapeseed, or hazelnut oil) and retest with the diluted essential oil.  If there is another allergic reaction discontinue topical use.


Internal:
For abnormal sweating, menopause, asthma, cough, fever, and rash, drink 2 tablespoons of hydrosol in a liter of water throughout the day. Alternately take 1 drop of White Sage essential oil (in a gel cap topped off with olive oil) once a day (Holmes 773). The author’s preferred method is 1 drop of essential oil in a glass bottle of water drank throughout the day (making sure its shaken well before each sip). Tincture dosage is 1 to 4 mL.  For the treatment of inflamed sore throat, mouth sores, and gums gargle with 1 drop of essential oil in an ounce of water, salt water, or White Sage hydrosol.


Inhalation:
Diffuse through an atomizer into the patient’s room continuously for cough, fever, sweating, and menopause. Also, the mist can be used to cleanse a patient, room, or oneself before, during, or after a treatment.


Topical: 
(Skin test before using) For abnormal sweating, cough, sore throat, fever, wheezing, asthma, irregular menstruation and menopausal disorders add 1 drop of essential oil or hydrosol to appropriate acupuncture points and Du-26. 

For abnormal sweating, night sweating and hot flashes anoint Ren-4, KI-3, SP-6, BL-23, HT-6, LI-4 and KI-7 and possibly DU-14 (For Action #1).

For a high fever add the essential oil to warm water and sponge the patient to bring the fever down and anoint LI-11, BL-17 (For Action #2).

For cough anoint LU-7, LI-4, BL13 and LU-10.

For sore throat anoint Ren-23, LI-18, LI-4, LI11, ST-44, LU-7 and KD-6 (For Action #2). 

For Lung deficiency and breathing disorders anoint BL-13, SI-17, LU-9, ST 36, SP-3, Ren-17 and Ding Chuan (Action #3).

For irregular menstruation, peri-menopausal and menopausal symptoms anoint SP-6 or Sp-8, ST-36, KD-1 (Action #4). Add An mian and HT-7 for insomnia.

For mouth sores anoint P-8.



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Conclusion

The global Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) industry has felt the impact of inflation throughout past years and have recently experienced much higher price increases than usual.  The reasons for elevated prices include market demand, the Yuan’s increasing strength, China’s weather and climate changes, herbs being cultivated more than wildcrafted, general economic proceedings, recent public health crises, and herbal supply shortages.1  In fact, as of 2010 eighty five percent of the total amount of Chinese traditional medicines in the market surged in price. Herb suppliers in the United States have also experienced increased prices across the board by up to thirty percent. The prices of certain bulk materials such as dried leaves, flowers, roots, and barks increased by as much as a factor of three in 2010.  This “meteoric rise” in prices in recent years could be due to increasing inflation in China, greed inherent in the “get-rich-quick” atmosphere of modern-day China, and drastic weather including floods and drought. These factors combined with the US dollar's loss in value have caused many herbs to increase in price.  There is also a rise in demand due to illnesses like SARS and the Swine flu.

A major film, Contagion, imagines what would happen if an illness like SARS became an epidemic and how the resulting demand on herbs would affect the global population.  Jude Law plays a corrupt man who turns his blogging into huge profits by declaring Forsynthia a miracle cure and garnering a windfall for the pharmaceutical companies that manufacture it. Though fictional, this movie illustrates that a rise in Chinese herb demand is not without consequences. Another consequence is that when an herb becomes popular it becomes threatened.  The Chinese become less discriminatory in what they are picking which can lead to environmental degradation by irresponsible wildcrafting.


Both the Instructor and Grasshopper Education are passionate about using local herbal medicine, and are leading the way in offering courses to empower and educate the practitioner how to use local plants in addition to your Chinese herbal pharmacy or to replace imported herbs altogether.  Both this course and the course  Making Moxa from California Mugwort are steps in this direction. 

White sage is abundant, non-threatened, and free.  With the tools learned in this course, the practitioner should be able to implement this herb into clinical practice right away.


American Botanical Council, "Global Prices of Traditional Chinese Herbs Rising,"  Volume 8, Number 2, February 2011, available at:  http://cms.herbalgram.org/heg/volume8/02February/TCMpricesrising.html?t=1296580896 (last visited July 2012).




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Appendix A:  White Sage Leaf Major Known Ingredients


1.  Camphor- an analgesic, antiseptic, antidiarrheic, antidysenteric, antineuralgic, antipruritic and antiacne, antifibrosistic, antispasmodic, CNS stimulant, cancer preventative, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nematicide, vibriocide, verrucolytic, rubefacient

2.  1,8-cineole- a terpenoid oxide also called eucalyptol (anti-inflammatory, antinoceptive, analgesic, inhibits leukemia cell growth (Santos et al. 240), and expectorant)

3.  triterpenes

4.  16-hydroxy-carnosic acid- (antibacterial, antifungal) carnosic acid- abiatane diterpines (effective against Staph, Candida, and Klebsielea pneumonia, antioxidant)*

5.  oleanolic acid-

6.  ursolic acid-

7.  α-amyrin- (antiedemic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive (pain relieving), antitumor, cytotoxic, insectifuge)

*Significant antibacterial (towards gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae at a concentration of 400 μg/ml and against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis at a concentration of 300 μg/ml and Staphylocoecus aureus at a concentration of 200 μg/ml) and antifungal (towards Candida albicans at a concentration of 200 μg/ml) compounds (carnosic acid, 16-hydroxycarnosic acid and their derivatives) were found in the diterpene acid fraction of the extract of Salvia apiana, whereas its essential oil (composed primarily of 1,8-cineole and camphor) as well as a mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acid were inactive even at 1000 μg/ml against tested organisms (Dentali and Hoffmann, 1992). The antibacterial activity of carnosic acid, known as salvin, against Staphylococcus aureus has also been reported by Dobrynin et al. (1976).
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Appendix B:  White Sage Leaf Essential Oil Constituents:

The essential oil content of white sage is up to 4% of the leaf.  The leaf is made up of fiber, chlorophyl, water, nonessential oil plant constituents and finally essential oil. 4% is very large percentage compared to other aromatic plants.

According to Takeoka et al. the aerial parts of Salvia apiana contain mostly:

    1,8 cineole (34.5%), camphor (21.7%), β-pinene (7.4%), α-pinene (6.4%), 3-carene (6.3%), camphene (3.9%), limonene (3.5%), myrcene (3.2%), and terpinolene (1.3%) and in smaller amounts β-carophyllene (1%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.7%), α-phellandrene (0.4%),  -terpinene (0.4%), (E)-β-ocimene (0.3%), α-thujene (0.3%).

     A study by Sandia Laboratories in 2003 showed different values but similar constituents. These constituents made up 94.59% of the steam distilled essential oil in a study by Theadore et al.:

    1,8 cineole (60.65%), β-pinene (10.68%), α-pinene (10.14%), 3-carene (3.19%), camphor (2.66%), camphene (0.82%), myrcene (2.42%), α-thujene (0.69%), para-cymene (3.10%), linalool (0.22%), 4-terpineol (0.47%), β-carophyllene (1.39%), α-amorphene (0.33%).

Explanation:
1.1,8-cineole- 1,8-cineole is the main component of White Sage (Salvia apina) essential oil. Therefore, a thorough understanding of 1,8-cineole is crucial for a practitioner using the essential oil. It is a terpenoid oxide also called eucalyptol.  It is anti-inflammatory, antinoceptive, analgesic, inhibits leukemia cell growth (Santos et al. 240), and expectorant.  1,8 cineole has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of bronchial asthma, cough, and liver failure (induced by endotoxemic shock) as well as having gastroprotective activity (due to its antioxidant activity and its lipoxygenase inhibitory effects) and possible benefits in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Takeota et al, 243). 1,8 cineole also known as eucalyptol is soothing for the throat. 1,8-cineole is regarded as safe in the amounts traditionally found in essential oils. However, a 1 mL (an entire dropper full) oral ingestion of pure concentrated 1,8-cineole can cause transient coma, poisoning, and can cause gastrointestinal and central nervous system damage.

2. Camphor- an analgesic, antiseptic, antidiarrheic, antidysenteric, antineuralgic, antipruritic and antiacne, antifibrosistic, antispasmodic, CNS stimulant, cancer preventative, carminative, decongestant, expectorant, nematicide, vibriocide, verrucolytic, rubefacient.

3.    -pinene- anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antispasmodic, candidicide, irritant, spasmogenic, and allergenic.

4.    -pinene- a pine scented monoterpene with antiacne, antibacterial, antiflu, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, cancer-preventative, antiviral, coleoptophile, expectorant, sedative, tranquilizer, spasmogenic, irritant, and allergenic properties.

5. camphene- a warm sensation similar to camphor but with less of a hot/cold sensation absorbed through the skin.

6. limonene- a monoterpene hydrocarbon

7. myrcene- a monoterpenoid (that is an ACE inhibitor, Aldose-Reductase-Inhibitor, allergenic, analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antispasmodic, fungicide, insecticide).

8. terpinolene- (antinitrosaminic, deoderant).

9. -caryophyllene- a sequiterpene -sedative with antiviral effects and has an ability to inhibit some carcinogenic processes (anti-acne, anti-asthmatic, antistaphyloccic, antistreptococcic, anti-tumor, candidicide, fungicide).

10. δ-3-carene- anti-inflammatory.


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General Information on Essential Oils and their Constitutents:

Alcohols: Energizing, bactericidal, diuretic, antiviral, ends in suffix –ol.

Aldehydes: Anti-inflammatory, sedative, antiviral, antiseptic.


Coumarin: Anticoagulant (caution-can lead to photosentitivity and liver damage.)


Esters: Antispasmodic, can be antifungal, sedative, relaxing.


Ethers: Antispasmodic, carminative, stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic.


Ketones: Cytophylactic (promotes tissue formation), mucolytic, dissolve mucus and fats (caution: some ketones are neurotoxic).


Oxides: e.g. cineole


Phenols: Bactericidal, immunostimulant, stimulant (caution: some are toxic to the liver and skin irritating), also suffix -ol.


Sulfers: Acrid scent.


Terpenes: Includes monoterpene, sequiterpene, and diterpene, ends in –ene.





References


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      Knowledge and Usage of Plants.  Malki Museum Press: Banning, 1972.

Beanfield, Harriet and Efrem Korngold.  Between Heaven and Earth.  Ballantine Books:
      New York, 1991.

Baker, Marc A.  “The Ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of
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Barrett, S. A. and E. W. Gifford.   “Miwok Material Culture.” Bulletin of the Public
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Bocek, Barbara R.  “Ethnobotany of the Costanoan Indians, California: Based on
      Collections by John P. Harrington”.  Economic Botany   38 (1984): 240-55.

Catty, Suzanne.  Hydrosols: The Next Aromatherapy.  Healing Arts Press: Rochester,
      2001.

Chestnut, V. K.  “Plants Used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California.”
       Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium  7 (1902): 295-408.

Cowen, Eliot.  Plant Spirit Medicine.  Swan Raven & Company: Columbus, 1995.

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